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Types Of Trademarks In Nigeria

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Trademarks are in different classes. This is so to distinguish between one class of business from the other in terms of what they offer. In Nigeria and many parts of the world, trademarks are majorly classified into two main types which are goods and services. This means that trademarks which involve goods are registered under the trademark of goods and likewise for services also.

Now, there are up to 45 types of trademarks for goods and services in Nigeria. Types from number 1 to 34 are solely for goods while 35 to 45 fall under services category.

Do you wish to trademark your name in Nigeria soon? See this guide on How To Trademark A Name In Nigeria

Types Of Trademarks In Nigeria

Types Of Trademarks In Nigeria

Types Of Trademarks In Nigeria: (Goods)

Class 1.

Chemicals used in industries, science and photography, as well as in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesives used in industry; unprocessed plastics in the form of liquids, chips or granules.

Class 2:

Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood; colorants; mordants; raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for painters, decorators, printers and artists.

Class 3:

Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning, polishing, scouring and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics, hair lotions; dentifrices.

Class 4:

Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; dust absorbing, wetting and binding compositions; fuels and illuminants; candles and wicks for lighting; combustible fuels, electricity and scented candles.

Class 5:

Pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations; sanitary preparations for medical purposes; dietetic food and substances adapted for medical or veterinary use, food for babies; dietary supplements for humans and animals; plasters, materials for dressings; material for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparations for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides.

Class 6:

Common metals and their alloys; metal building materials; transportable buildings of metal; materials of metal for railway tracks; non-electric cables and wires of common metal; ironmongery, small items of metal hardware; pipes and tubes of metal; safes; goods of common metal not included in other classes; ores; unwrought and partly wrought common metals; metallic windows and doors; metallic framed conservatories.

Class 7:

Machines and machine tools; motors and engines (except for land vehicles); machine coupling and transmission components (except for land vehicles); agricultural implements other than hand-operated; incubators for eggs; automatic vending machines.

Class 8:

Hand tools and hand operated implements; cutlery; side arms; razors; electric razors and hair cutters.

Class 9: Scientific, nautical, surveying, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signaling, checking (supervision), life-saving and teaching apparatus and instruments; apparatus and instruments for conducting, switching, transforming, accumulating, regulating or controlling electricity; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images; magnetic data carriers, recording discs; compact discs, DVDs and other digital recording media; mechanisms for coin-operated apparatus; cash registers, calculating machines, data processing equipment, computers; computer software; fire-extinguishing apparatus.

Class 10:

Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopedic articles; suture materials; sex aids; massage apparatus; supportive bandages; furniture adapted for medical use.

Class 11:

Apparatus for lighting, heating, steam generating, cooking, refrigerating, drying, ventilating, water supply and sanitary purposes; air conditioning apparatus; electric kettles; gas and electric cookers; vehicle lights and vehicle air conditioning units.

Class 12:

Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water; wheelchairs; motors and engines for land vehicles; vehicle body parts and transmissions.

Class 13:

Firearms; ammunition and projectiles, explosives; fireworks.

Class 14:

Precious metals and their alloys; jewelry, costume jewelry, precious stones; hierological and chronometric instruments, clocks and watches.

Class 15:

Musical instruments; stands and cases adapted for musical instruments.

Class 16:

Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, not included in other classes; printed matter; bookbinding material; photographs; stationery; adhesives for stationery or household purposes; artists’ materials; paint brushes; typewriters and office requisites (except furniture); instructional and teaching material (except apparatus); plastic materials for packaging (not included in other classes); printers’ type; printing blocks.

Class 17:

Rubber, gutta-percha, gum, asbestos, mica and goods made from these materials; plastics in extruded form for use in manufacture; semi-finished plastics materials for use in further manufacture; stopping and insulating materials; flexible non-metallic pipes.

Class 18:

Leather and imitations of leather; animal skins, hides; trunks and travelling bags; handbags, rucksacks, purses; umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips, harness and saddlery; clothing for animals.

Class 19:

Non-metallic building materials; non-metallic rigid pipes for building; asphalt, pitch and bitumen; non-metallic transportable buildings; non-metallic monuments; non-metallic framed conservatories, doors and windows.

Class 20:

Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; articles made of wood, cork, reed, cane, wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber, mother-of-pearl, meerschaum or plastic which are not included in other classes; garden furniture; pillows and cushions.

Class 21:

Household or kitchen utensils and containers; combs and sponges; brushes; brush-making materials; articles for cleaning purposes; steel wool; articles made of ceramics, glass, porcelain or earthenware which are not included in other classes; electric and non-electric toothbrushes.

Class 22:

Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks for transporting bulk materials; padding and stuffing materials which are not made of rubber or plastics; raw fibrous textile materials.

Class 23:

Yarns and threads, for textile use.

Class 24:

Textiles and textile goods; bed and table covers; travelers’ rugs, textiles for making articles of clothing; duvets; covers for pillows, cushions or duvets.

Class 25:

Clothing, footwear, headgear.

Class 26:

Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers.

Class 27:

Carpets, rugs, mats and matting, linoleum and other materials for covering existing floors; wall hangings (non-textile); wallpaper.

Class 28:

Games and playthings; playing cards; gymnastic and sporting articles; decorations for Christmas trees; children’s’ toy bicycles.

Class 29:

Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams, compotes; eggs, milk and milk products; edible oils and fats; prepared meals; soups and potato crisps.

Class 30:

Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice, tapioca, sago, artificial coffee; flour and preparations made from cereals, bread, pastry and confectionery, ices; honey, treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt, mustard; vinegar, sauces (condiments); spices; ice; sandwiches; prepared meals; pizzas, pies and pasta dishes.

Class 31:

Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables, seeds, natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals; malt; food and beverages for animals.

Class 32:

Beers; mineral and aerated waters; non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and fruit juices; syrups for making beverages; shandy, de-alcoholised drinks, non-alcoholic beers and wines.

Class 33:

Alcoholic wines; spirits and liqueurs; alcopops; alcoholic cocktails.

Class 34:

Tobacco; smokers’ articles; matches; lighters for smokers.

Types Of Trademarks In Nigeria: (Services)

Class 35:

Advertising; business management; business administration; office functions; electronic data storage; organization, operation and supervision of loyalty and incentive schemes; advertising services provided via the Internet; production of television and radio advertisements; accountancy; auctioneering; trade fairs; opinion polling; data processing; provision of business information; retail services connected with the sale of goods.

Class 36:

Insurance; financial services; real estate agency services; building society services; banking; stockbroking; financial services provided via the Internet; issuing of tokens of value in relation to bonus and loyalty schemes; provision of financial information.

Class 37:

Building construction; repair; installation services; installation, maintenance and repair of computer hardware; painting and decorating; cleaning services.

Class 38:

Telecommunications services; chat room services; portal services; e-mail services; providing user access to the Internet; radio and television broadcasting.

Class 39:

Transport; packaging and storage of goods; travel arrangement; distribution of electricity; travel information; provision of car parking facilities.

Class 40:

Treatment of materials; development, duplicating and printing of photographs; generation of electricity.

Class 41:

Education; providing of training; entertainment; sporting and cultural activities.

Class 42:

Scientific and technological services and research and design relating thereto; industrial analysis and research services; design and development of computer hardware and software; computer programming; installation, maintenance and repair of computer software; computer consultancy services; design, drawing and commissioned writing for the compilation of websites; creating, maintaining and hosting the websites of others; design services.

Class 43:

Services for providing food and drink; temporary accommodation; restaurant, bar and catering services; provision of holiday accommodation; booking and reservation services for restaurants and holiday accommodation; retirement home services; crèche services.

Class 44:

Medical services; veterinary services; hygienic and beauty care for human beings or animals; agriculture, horticulture and forestry services; dentistry services; medical analysis for the diagnosis and treatment of persons; pharmacy advice; garden design services.

Class 45:

Legal services; conveyancing services; security services for the protection of property and individuals; social work services; consultancy services relating to health and safety; consultancy services relating to personal appearance; provision of personal tarot readings; dating services; funeral services and undertaking services; fire-fighting services; detective agency services.

Note: These different types of trademarks in Nigeria classes in are in line with the Nice International Classification of Good and Services of the Nice Agreement 1957, which provides for 45 classes of goods and services under trademark.

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Ekemini Ekpo is a professional writer, blogger, and internet marketer. He is passionate about engineering, business, investment, entrepreneurship, finance, and personal development. When he is not managing web projects, he handles academic research writing and data analysis for individuals and organizations.

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Basic Steps And Requirements For Starting A Dredging Business In Nigeria

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Dredging has to do with the mechanical excavation of sand, gravel, mud and other substances from the bottom of a water body such as a river, stream, creek, lagoon etc. to do that, you need a vessel known as a dredger.

The need for more buildings and other physical structures has made the market for dredging in Nigeria to become a much sought-after one. Of course, there will always be the need to build or construct. So, dredging never dies.

Aside from the construction of new buildings or roads, etc., dredging products such as sand, gravel, rocks, and pebbles are also used to reclaim swampy areas and for the production of construction materials.

Basic Steps And Requirements For Starting A Dredging Business In Nigeria

Basic Steps And Requirements For Starting A Dredging Business In Nigeria

How Does Dredging Work?

Some dredgers are water-powered, and these cuts and sucks up the dredged material, like sand, from the bottom of the waterway by a method which involves a stepping stool that is mounted on the cutter head passing the material via a suction pipe and this sucked via a suction pump via a drifting pipeline up to the shore. When it arrives on the shore, at the dump, is it moved using tipper to the sub-dump where it is piled up, ready for sale or use.

Opportunities Available in dredging commercial enterprise

There are plenty options in the dredging business. Let’s look at some of them below:

1) Dredging:

  1. Channelization of river
  2. Fabrication of dredger
  3. Managing the dredge team
  4. Reclamation and urban renewal
  5. Safety of a dredger
  6. Stockpiles and profits

2) Supply of sand to numerous locations

3) Sand search

4) Environmental impact assessment

5) Hydrographic survey

6) Leasing of dredging workplace tools such as:

  1. Dredger
  2. Excavator
  3. Low bed
  4. Payloader
  5. Swamp buggy

Basics Steps To Starting Dredging Business In Nigeria

Among the many uses of dredging, its use for the building of houses seems to be the most outstanding. Housing, of course, is one of the most basic needs of man. He can’t just do without it, just like food and clothing. Before the advent of the present technologies in building construction, man has always experimented with several materials to meet his housing needs. This ranges from mud, sand and rock, all in an effort to withstand the elements. With time, however, in a bid to get the much-needed solidness and strength for buildings, other materials have been introduced to building technology such as steel and glass.

Given the alarming shortage of residential and commercial buildings in the country, therefore, there has been much interest in the sand dredging industry in Nigeria, all in a bid to cater for the housing needs of Nigerians. Sand dredging is vital to keep the pace with building of homes and offices as well as industrial layouts in all over the country. Therefore, going into it is a great way to earn a decent income.

Kinds Of Dredgers To Buy

Two popular kinds of dredgers are available in the market. They include

  1. The discontinuous
  2. The persistent

The discontinuous dredger burrows and excavates the heap while the persistent dredger burrows consistently, raising and also transporting the dredged materials at the same time.

Types Of Dredgers To Go For

If you wish to buy dredger in Nigeria, go for the types manufactured by IHC as well as ELLICOT. There are more solid, sturdy and durable, although a bit expensive. China-made dredgers are not very strong, although less expensive.

Types Of Dredging Businesses To Do

There is hardly a part of Nigeria where dredging business does not thrive. However, the riverine areas have more market for the business. however, dredging business in Nigeria may be dissected into the following parts or classification systems:

  1. Class A —Dredging Firms only
  2. Class B — for Only Dredging and sand dealer as well as;
  3. Class C – Manual dredgers as alone

Class A – Dredging Firms Only

  1. Application for dredging routed to the Honorable Commissioner Ministry of Waterfront Infrastructure Development.
  2. Installment of the use charge of N50,000 [fifty thousand Naira only] Provides point by point depiction of proposed dredging area.
  3. Provision of the Environmental Impact Analysis Report.
  4. Provide Hydrographic review.
  5. Bathymetric review of the proposed area.
  6. Duplicates of current duty freedom authentication.
  7. An endorsement will be liable to the installment of the accompanying charges:

(an) (i) Payment of the total of N1,000,000.00 (One million Naira) per annum.

(ii) Proof of Ownership or Access to Portable Barges

(b) (i) Payment of the total of N750,000.00 (Seven Hundred and fifty thousand Naira) per annum

(c) (i) Payment of the entirety of N500,000.00 (Five Hundred Thousand Naira) per annum.

Classification B – Dredging/Sand Sellers Only

  1. Application for dredging routed to the Honorable Commissioner, Ministry of Waterfront Infrastructure Development.
  2. Installment of utilization expense of N50,000.00 [Bank Draft] Provide point by point portrayal of proposed dredging area.
  3. Provide the Environmental Impact Analysis report.
  4. Provide hydrographic study.
  5. Bathymetric study of the proposed area.
  6. Duplicates of current expense leeway authentication.
  7. An endorsement will be liable to the installment of the aggregate of the accompanying expenses.

(i) installment of the entirety of N1, 000,000.00[One million Naira].

(ii) Proof of possession or access to convenient freight boats

(b) Payment of the entirety of N750,000:00 (Seven Hundred and fifty thousand Naira) per annum.

(c) Payment of the entirety of N500,000:00 (Five Hundred Thousand Naira) per annum.

Classification C – Manual dredgers as it were

  1. Application for dredging routed to the Honorable Commissioner, Ministry of Waterfront Infrastructure Development.
  2. Installment of utilization expense of N50,000.00 [Bank Draft] Provide point by point portrayal of proposed dredging area.
  3. Verification of responsibility for Edge review and Ecological Impact Analysis (EIA).
  4. Provide an account of dredging procedure to be embraced.

The endorsement will be subjected to the installment of the accompanying expenses:

(i) Payment of the total of N200, 000:00 (Two Hundred Thousand Naira) per annum.

(ii) Proof of access to Portable Barges.

(iii) Payment of the total of N100, 000:00 [One Hundred Thousand Naira) per annum.

(c) Payment of the total of N50, 000:00 (Fifty Thousand Naira) per annum.

 

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20 Lucrative Small Businesses In Nigeria You Can Start Now

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Small businesses have always existed in Nigeria and are commonly operated in the streets. These businesses have catered to the immediate needs of many as they are easily accessible, hence the increase in the number of small business owners in the country. For many who are having a hard time deciding which to invest in, the list below will be of great help.

20 Lucrative Small Businesses In Nigeria You Can Start Now

20 Lucrative Small Businesses In Nigeria You Can Start Now

1.      POULTRY FARMING:

In Nigeria today, the amount of protein consumed daily is unimaginable, this makes poultry farming a very profitable business to invest in.  Poultry products like eggs, birds are consumed on a daily basis in homes, restaurant businesses etc. Therefore, investing in this business has a good margin for profitability and the best part is that you can start small.

2.      FISH FARMING:

For fish farming, you will need to equip yourself with the right information on how to properly build a fish farm so as to avoid losses. Types of equipment needed are fish ponds, a good supply of water and good drainage system before you proceed to get your fingerlings which will be nursed into the mature fish.

3.      SNAIL REARING:

Snail rearing is another business you can venture into. It requires less capital and snails reproduce at a fast rate. Snails can be reared in homes as they do not smell and are also in high demand in Nigeria.

4.      CROP FARMING:

There are many things that can be done with an unused land and one of them is crop farming. This can be done either on a small scale or on a commercial scale. The population in Nigeria makes farming a profitable investment. Rice, Cassava, yams, maize and vegetables are examples of crops that can be planted because they are in constant demand.

5.      RESTAURANTS:

Restaurants will continue to exist since not everyone can afford to patronize fast foods. As food is an essential for everyone, this business has a tendency to thrive. Bearing in mind that it is accompanied by its own unique stress but with good hands, this can be managed.

6.      CATERING:

Catering is also centered on food. Caterers exist because not everyone has the time to prepare meals for their events. This business is usually done on a contract basis and when handled with professionalism promises lifetime customers irrespective of how much you charge.

7.      CAR WASH:

The basic needs of this business are a very accessible location, a good supply of water, car washing equipment and a good support team.

8.     LAUNDRY SERVICES:

To run my service, you will need a reliable source of electricity supply and other equipment like a washing machine, dryer and pressing irons.

The ability to satisfy your clients will determine how much profits you can turn in.

9.      SOAP MAKING:

Just like food, soap is also in high demand in homes, offices, etc. Get the right knowledge, equipment, excellent packaging and strategic marketing, and you are all set.

10. HAIR AND BEAUTY SALONS:

As long as there are people, there will be salons. Everyone desires to look good and this boost the hair and beauty business. Acquire the skill, set up your shop and let people know about your business.

11. TAILORING AND FASHION DESIGN:

Fashion design requires skill and creativity. You can start small and build your brand with time. Build good relationships with your clients, offer quality service and this can earn you referrals as well as return customers.

12. SALE OF SECOND ITEMS:

Majority of the population in Nigeria buy second-hand clothes, shoes, curtains,  bed sheets etc. which makes this business a very profitable one. You can start with a bale and expand with time.

13. EVENT PLANNING:

Every event requires a planner either professionally or not. Event planners help ease the stress on the client by coordinating events from start to finish. With the right information, software and expertise you can build a good reputation as an event planner.

14. SALE OF ICE BLOCKS:

For areas where the power supply is low, ice block business is a good source of income. Ice blocks are needed on a daily basis by sellers of drinks.

15. TUTORING:

With the current emphasis on vocational training, Parents are in need of tutors to coach their children in subjects and arts like acting, dancing, singing and creative writing. This is an opportunity for everyone with these skills to earn money while instilling knowledge.

16. PARTY EQUIPMENT RENTALS:

This business is capital intensive as you will need to acquire the materials like canopies, chairs, drums etc. This business can be run from the comfort of your home.

17. SUPPLYING AND SALE OF FIREWOOD:

On a daily basis, firewood is used in Nigeria, either by caterers, restaurant business owners etc. Starting a firewood supply business can yield you good profits.

18. SNACKS AND COCKTAILS:

Little drops they say makes a mighty ocean, you can make snacks like puff-puff, bread, cake, meat pie etc. with drinks like zobo and pineapple drink for sale in areas like schools, offices etc. and earn some money daily.

19. OFFICE SUPPLIES:

For workers who are unable to shop for their office needs, you can be the middleman bringing their needs to their doorstep at fair prices.

20. WEBSITE DESIGNING:

Many businesses are moving with the tide and going digital which has led to a demand for web designers. You can acquire the skill and source for clients in need of this service. The internet is a good place to start.

Welcome on board to entrepreneur.ng

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20 Hot Tips to Get More Customers To Patronize Your Business

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If truly you need more client or customers then se this article to get our 20 Hot Tips to Get More Customers To Patronize Your Business. Just as it applies in the normal human scenario and in natural settings in general, it is only realistic for business to experience significant growth over a given period of time. Any business that does not grow is stagnant and in no distant date nor time, will see the exit door. Growth is essential for every business enterprise to thrive. There are variety of ways to achieve growth in a business and these are outlined below

Getting more customers to patronize your business has never been an easy task. But with the right tools, procedures and tips, you can achieve this in a very easy way. Of course, patronage is the life wire of any business, and in order to make any significant profit or remain in the business, the need for more patronage from a large pool of customers cannot be overemphasized.

For any business to remain significant and pull-in the much-needed revenue, it is necessary to get more people, especially new clients to patronize the business. To achieve this, therefore, it is necessary to know the cardinal steps to take in realizing continuous patronage.

In this discussion, therefore, I will be looking at about 20 hot tips which you can deploy to help you get more clients/customers to patronize your business and grow it within a very short time.

20 Hot Tips to Get More Customers To Patronize Your Business

20 Hot Tips to Get More Customers To Patronize Your Business

1.      Hire the Best Staff for Your Business

To grow your business you need the right team with good workable ideas on how to help grow your business. You should hire capable hands who can manage your resources effectively to get customers.

2.      Treat Your Staff Well

It is not enough to hire good staff, always seek out ways to reward, inspire and encourage them with incentives like cash, holidays, promotion, job enlargement, transfer to other departments, training, International travel, etc. This way you are certain that they will render good service to your customers.

3.      Chose a Good Business Location

A good business location guarantees easy access to customers. The location will either give your customers a positive or negative experience. Also, take note of the facilities available for your customers’ convenience.

4.      Close Substitutes for Products or Services

As much as possible try to have everything your customers need in your business, customers love the idea of a one-stop business where they can get the options for things they want.

5.      Quality Products and Discounts

Customers want good value for their money. Give customers excellent products at good prices and discounts and they will revisit your business daily.

6.      Identify Your Customers

All businesses have a specific niche they target. They do not serve everybody, you can grow your customer base by reaching out to your target audience, identify their needs and develop ways to better serve them.

7.      Good Management

A good management team helps to develop innovative ways to attract new customers while keeping old customers satisfied.

8.      Capitalize On Your Strength

Every business has a unique selling point, determine yours and capitalize on it. Market your strengths.

9.      Exceptional Customer Service

Good customer service is needed for any business to grow. Even if your products are top quality, with bad customer service you can perform below-expected results. Get feedback from customers and develop ways to serve them better.

10. Do After Sales Enquiry

Develop a strategy to get feedback from your customers to know or rate their satisfaction level of your product or service. You can contact customers personally to show how much you care.

11. Reward

Customers like to feel appreciated for their loyalty to your brand. You can organize a get-together, an award ceremony or an end of year party to show appreciation to these customers. Ensure you praise them and ask for referrals.

12.

Marketing Campaign

Networking with Industry Influencers

Networking is also a necessity to grow your business, connect with big game players in the industry. That way you can build relationships with them which will foster recommendations for your business.

13. Diversify

The variety they say is the spice of life. Diversity gives your customers the impression that they have choices to choose from when they patronize you.

14. Ask Customers to refer Clients to You.

Referrals are necessary for a startup to grow. Therefore, you can ask satisfied customers to refer clients to you.

15. Marketing Campaign

Marketing Campaigns can be used to create awareness if your brand in the minds of customers. You can do this on your business website using digital marketing strategies.

16. Social Media

Take advantage of social media to advertise your business, use bulk SMS, YouTube videos, Podcasts, Google AdWords, etc to connect with customers. You can also launch a marketing campaign using digital media.

17. Buy Smaller Companies

As your business grows and becomes more profitable, you can seize opportunities to acquire smaller companies in the same sectors as you. That way you can expand your customer base.

18. Technology

In Nigeria, technology has become an essential part of every business. Technology can be used to effectively produce and manage large orders for your products or services.

19. Use Freebies and Incentives:

Freebies have always worked as a powerful marketing tool to attract customers to your business.

dont waste time, this is going to help you and your friends, why not share with them now.

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